2020年的第9天(1月9日)复星全球合伙人,复星基础设施产业发展集团董事长温晓东向经济观察报披露了目前杭绍台铁路建设的最新进展:截至2019年底,杭绍台铁路投资开累完成216亿,占总投资%,站前实体工程量完成65%,全线56座隧道已贯通24座,计划于2021年如期建成通车。

On the ninth day of 2020(January 9), Fuxing Global Partner and Chairman of Fosun Infrastructure Industry Development Group, Wen Xiaodong, disclosed to the Economic Observer the latest progress in the construction of the Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway: By the end of 2019, the investment of the Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway had been completed 21.6 billion, accounting for% of the total investment,65% of the project volume in front of the station,24 tunnels had been completed and 56 tunnels were scheduled to be opened in 2021.

杭绍台铁路,中国首条民资控股高铁。2017年9月11日,浙江省政府与复星集团牵头的民营联合体正式签署杭绍台铁路PPP项目投资合同,线路速度目标值350km/h,合作期限34年,运营期30年,项目可研批复总投资亿元,其中项目资本金占比30%,复星牵头的民营联合体51%,中国国家铁路集团15%、浙江省%、台州市%、绍兴市%。

Hangzhou-shaotai railway, china's first privately owned high-speed rail. On September 11,2017, the Zhejiang provincial government and the private consortium led by Fosun Group formally signed the investment contract for the PPP project of Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway, with a line speed target of 350 km \/ h, a cooperation period of 34 years and a period of 30 years, with a total investment of 100 million yuan for the project research and approval, including 30% of the project capital,51% of the private consortium led by Fosun,15% of China National Railway Group,% of Zhejiang Province,% of Taizhou City and% of Shaoxing City.

国铁集团、民营企业、地方政府,中国铁路建设的主力军和预备役正齐聚在这条铁路上,探索中国民资入铁的可行路径。

China railway group, private enterprises, local government, the main force and reserve service of china railway construction are gathering on this railway to explore the feasible path of china's private-funded railway.

这是铁路“破壁”之后的事情。2005年《国务院关于鼓励支持和引导个体私营等非公有制经济发展的若干意见》,在其中明确提出要鼓励非公有资本进入包括铁路在内的垄断行业,自此开始,民资入铁形式上的壁垒已经破除,而在这堵墙壁之后,“荒野”上的探索才刚刚开始,一次又一次进入的民资尝试回答这些看似“技术性”的问题:铁路该怎么修?融资怎么融?谁来运营?如何保证铁路的公共性和投资回报间的平衡?以及最重要的,民资到底能给中国铁路、中国乘客带来什么?

This is after the railway \"broken wall\" thing. In 2005, the State Council's Opinions on Encouraging Support and Guidance for the Development of Non-public-owned Economies, such as the Private Private Sector, made it clear that it was necessary to encourage non-public capital to enter monopolistic industries, including railways. Since then, barriers to the form of private-funded railways have been broken. How does financing finance finance? Who will operate? How to ensure the balance between public and return on investment? And most importantly, what can civilian capital bring to Chinese railways and Chinese passengers?

2019年的冬至,《中共中央国务院关于营造更好发展环境支持民营企业改革发展的意见》重磅出台,提出进一步放开民营企业市场准入,为民营企业参与市场竞争松绑开路。《意见》还明确,要在铁路等重点行业和领域,放开竞争性业务,进一步引入市场竞争机制。

During the winter solstice in 2019, the State Council of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on creating a better development environment to support the reform and development of private enterprises launched a major issue, proposed to further liberalize market access for private enterprises to participate in market competition. It is also clear that it is necessary to liberalize competitive business and further introduce market competition mechanisms in key industries and fields such as railways.

杭绍台铁路的民资主力复星正在筹划更多的项目。温晓东对经济观察报表示,作为民营企业,复星基础设施集团还将更广泛地参与国家战略,打造轨道交通示范性工程,服务京津冀协同发展、长三角一体化发展、粤港澳大湾区建设等区域发展。

The main civilian-funded Fosun of the Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway is planning more projects. As a private enterprise, fuxing infrastructure group will also be more widely involved in national strategy to create rail transit demonstration projects to serve the coordinated development of beijing, tianjin and tianjin, the integration of the changjiang triangle and the construction of the guangdong-hong kong-oa bay area, wen xiaodong told economic observer.

该年年中,原铁总(现为中国国家铁路集团)开始推动EPC建设模式,EPC是工程总承包制的一种,即项目的设计、采购、建设的全部环节交给一个总承包商。一位铁路方面的专家曾对经济观察报表示,从技术角度,EPC可以统一工程标准,更好地保证铁路安全,同时还能有效地控制项目经费。这种建设方式目前较多采用于中国铁路出海的项目中,在国内的一些建设项目中也开始推广。

In the middle of the year, the former Railway General (now China National Railway Group) began to promote the EPC construction model, EPC is a kind of general contracting system, that is, the design of the project, procurement, construction of all links to a general contractor. An expert on railways has told the Economic Observer that from a technical point of view, EPC can unify engineering standards, better guarantee railway safety, and also effectively control project funding. At present, this kind of construction method is mostly used in the projects of China's railway going to sea, and has been popularized in some domestic construction projects.

最终杭绍台铁路采用了EPC模式进行招标,中标单位为中国铁路设计集团有限公司(原铁三院),中标金额为229亿元,在“首条民资控股高铁”这一称号外,杭绍台铁路又成为了中国铁路领域EPC的“试验田”。“磨合”是杭绍台铁路建设至今两年中的关键词之一。从金融机构到各类建设单位,既往铁路建设的一切机制均是围绕铁总—国铁集团展开,民资牵头的铁路项目需要寻找其在这个严密体系中的位置。

In the end, Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway adopted the EPC model to bid, the winning bid was China Railway Design Group Co., Ltd (the original railway three hospitals), the winning amount was 22.9 billion yuan, in addition to the title of \"the first private-owned high-speed rail \", Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway has become the\" experimental field \"of EPC in the Chinese railway field. \"Run-in\" is one of the key words in the construction of Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway. From financial institutions to all kinds of construction units, all the mechanisms of railway construction in the past are centered around the Railway Corporation of China, and private-funded railway projects need to find their place in this tight system.

2018年,在建设进入正轨时,杭绍台铁路进入铁路投融资体制改革的“深水区”,一位接近杭绍台铁路项目的人士对经济观察报表示,由于民资控股高铁并无先例,无论是项目方抑或是金融机构,由于缺乏可参照的融资模式,贷款审批一度遇到障碍。

In 2018, when construction was on track, the hangzhou-shaotai railway entered the \"deep-water zone\" of the reform of the railway investment and financing system, and a person close to the hangzhou-shaotai railway project told the economic observer that loan approval was once blocked due to the lack of a reference financing model, either by the project side or by financial institutions, because there was no precedent.

铁路建设资金分为两个部分,一个是资本金部分,一般要求为投资方的自有资金;其余资金则来自于银行等金融机构提供的贷款。

The railway construction fund is divided into two parts, one is the capital part, which generally requires the investor's own funds; the rest comes from loans provided by financial institutions such as banks.

这个困难最终在2018年年底得到了解决。2019年4月26日,方案披露,杭绍台铁路公司与国开行、工行、农行、建行、进出口行、邮储行6家项目银团成员行共同签署杭绍台铁路项目贷款合同,贷款规模达281亿元。

The difficulty was finally resolved at the end of 2018. On April 26,2019, the scheme revealed that Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway Company signed a loan contract for the Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway Project with six project syndicated members of CDB, ICBC, Agricultural Bank, CCB, Import and Export Bank and Postal savings Bank, with a loan scale of 28.1 billion yuan.

2018年11月1日的民营经济座谈会指出:“要改革和完善金融机构监管考核和内部激励机制,把银行业绩考核同支持民营经济发展挂钩,解决不敢贷、不愿贷的问题。”

\"It is necessary to reform and improve the regulatory assessment and internal incentive mechanism of financial institutions, link bank performance appraisal to support the development of private economy, and solve the problem of not daring and unwilling to lend,\" the private economy forum on November 1,2018 noted.

这是一条漫长的路,4年的建设期还只是第一步,投入的民资需要考量这条铁路将会如何运营,以及这种运营将会给投资的民营企业带来什么样的价值。

This is a long road, four years of construction is only the first step, the investment of private capital needs to consider how the railway will operate, and such operations will bring value to the private sector investment.

罗兰贝格全球合伙人兼大中华区副总裁(交通物流与旅游)于占福对经济观察报表示,铁路投资的收益一般来自于两个方面,一方面是车票收入,即通过售票、运输带来的收入;另一部分为非票收入,包括餐饮服务、广告、土地综合开放等等。

Yu Zhanfu, global partner at Rolandberg and vice president of Greater China (Transport Logistics and Tourism), told Economic Observer that the return on rail investment generally comes from two aspects: ticket revenue, i.e., revenue from ticket sales and transportation, and non-ticket revenue, including catering services, advertising, land consolidation and so on.

温晓东对经济观察报表示,目前,杭绍台铁路公司已与上海局集团公司签订委托管理运输框架协议,建成后将由上海局集团公司纳入铁路网统一运输管理。

Mr. Wen told the Economic Observer that the company had signed a framework agreement with the Shanghai Bureau Group Company for the entrusted management of transportation, which would be incorporated into the unified transport management of the railway network after completion.

杭绍台铁路位于我国人口密集经济发达的浙江沿海地区,建成后预计每年单向运输人次将会达到4000万。经济观察报在2017年进行的一次采访获得的信息显示,根据当时的测算,剔掉运营成本以外,杭绍台铁路需要在30年的合作运营期内全部收回投资。

The Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway is located in the densely populated and economically developed coastal area of Zhejiang, and is expected to reach 40 million person-times per year after completion. According to information obtained in an interview conducted by the Economic Observer in 2017, the Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway needs to fully recoup its investment during the 30-year cooperative operation period, according to then-calculated removal of operating costs.

温晓东对经济观察报表示,杭绍台铁路正积极发挥自身民营控股项目的灵活性特点,充分发挥桥梁纽带作用,紧密连接铁路和地方,共同开展对项目土地综合开发的探索和实践,争取增加收益,实现项目效益最大化。

Wen Xiaodong told the Economic Observer newspaper that the Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway is actively exerting its own flexible characteristics of private holding projects, giving full play to the role of bridge ties, closely connecting railway and local areas, and jointly carrying out the exploration and practice of comprehensive land development of the project, so as to increase the benefits and maximize the benefits of the project.

站场的商业开发成为首要选择,据温晓东介绍,将会在铁路站场内商业开发经营层面,基于杭绍台项目的特殊性,在站内经营权收益方面将进一步与路局协商确定负责实施的主体和收益分配,实现收益的最大化;其次是通过对已有车站的经验汲取,进一步优化站内的广告位设置及分布,实现站内广告效益最大化;第三是通过合理布局站内出发层、商业夹层和服务业商业的商铺布置和类型,有效提高站内商业收益;第四是争取主导杭绍台沿线站内广告媒介经营,凭借复星及其他股东方资源,增加影响力,提升项目持续经营能力。

The commercial development of the station yard has become the first choice, according to Wen Xiaodong, will be in the railway station in the commercial development and operation level, based on the particularity of the Hangzhou-Shaotai project, in the station operating right income will be further determined with the Road Bureau responsible for the implementation of the main body and income distribution, to achieve the maximum revenue; secondly, through the experience of the existing stations, further optimize the station advertising space setting and distribution, to maximize the benefits of the station; thirdly, through a reasonable layout of the station, commercial interlayer and service business shop layout and type, effectively improve the station commercial revenue; fourthly, strive for the leading station along the Hangzhou-Shaotai station advertising media, relying on the impact of the East Resources and other shares to increase the impact, enhance the sustainable operation of the project.

房地产相关业务的开发往往被认为是民资入铁的动机之一,但是在北京交通大学经济管理学院教授赵坚看来,并非每条铁路线路都有地产开发的价值,按照海外的经验,具有这些价值的铁路往往是30-70公里的通勤铁路而非干线铁路,这些铁路一般围绕核心城市修建。

The development of real estate-related businesses is often cited as one of the motivations for civilian-funded railways, but in the view of Zhao Jian, a professor at the School of Economics and Management at Beijing Jiaotong University, not every railway line has the value of real estate development, and according to overseas experience, railways with these values are often 30-70 kilometers of commuter rail rather than trunk rail, which are generally built around the core city.

当地时间2020年1月1日,正在伦敦求学的张文扬来到了一处火车售票站购买车票,排队的人们获知火车票价格又涨了,表示了不满,售票窗口的工作人员一脸委屈说道:“去年我们涨了三镑多,今年只涨了两镑,我们已经够为大家着想了,怎么还骂我们呢?”

On January 1,2020, Zhang Wenyang, who was studying in London, went to a train ticket station to buy tickets. People in line were notified that the price of train tickets had gone up again, and the staff of the ticket window complained with a face:\" We went up more than three pounds last year and only two pounds this year.

20世纪80年代开始,英国开启了一轮私有化进程,至90年代,浪潮席卷至铁路领域,在路网分离的基础上,英国铁路旅客运输服务被招标出售给若干私营企业,但是这一私有化进程因此后的票价、安全等诸多问题而饱受争议。

The process began in the 1980s, when britain began a process of privatisation, and by the 1990s, the wave had swept into the railway sector. On the basis of the separation of road networks, britain's rail passenger transport service was tendered to a number of private companies, but the subsequent privatization process was controversial, such as ticket prices and security.

于占福对经济观察报表示,民资入铁并不是目的本身,真正的目的是希望为铁路运营和发展带来一些积极的变化,“民资需要去想清楚能够为铁路发展贡献什么”。在于占福看来,目前政策推动民资入铁一方面是希望分担铁路投资的压力,另一方面也是希望民资能够带来更多的更有效的市场竞争,民营企业具有更灵活的特征,有利于带来运输服务上的优化和创新。

Mr yu told the economic observer that civil-funded rail was not an end in itself. The real aim was to bring some positive changes to the operation and development of the railway.\" Private capital needs to figure out what it can contribute to the development of the railway \". In Zhanfu's view, on the one hand, the policy of promoting private investment is to share the pressure of railway investment, on the other hand, it is also to hope that private investment can bring more effective market competition, and private enterprises have more flexible characteristics, which is conducive to the optimization and innovation of transportation services.

2019年7月,杭绍台铁路公司与国铁吉讯公司签订了合作协议——国铁吉讯是国铁集团与吉利、腾讯成立的合资公司,也是铁路混改的成果,该公司负责全国铁路动车组WiFi平台建设和经营。

In July 2019, Hangzhou-Shaotai Railway signed a cooperation agreement with China Railway Jixun, a joint venture between China Railway Group and Geely and Tencent and the result of mixed railway reform, which is responsible for the construction and operation of the WiFi platform for the national railway EMU.

温晓东向经济观察报介绍,该次协议将会发挥国铁吉讯的技术优势,逐步将互联网、物联网、人工智能等先进技术融入到沿线合适站房,并在今后的运营管理中试点运用,共同探索打造智慧车站,实现与站场商业开发经营的优势互补和有效联动,在提升旅客出行的体验感和获得感的同时,有效增加客流覆盖面和商业收益。

Wen Xiaodong told the Economic Observer newspaper that the agreement would give full play to the technical advantages of Guotiejixun, gradually integrate advanced technologies such as Internet, Internet of things, artificial intelligence and other advanced technologies into suitable stations along the line, and use them in the future operation and management, jointly explore and build intelligent stations, and realize complementary advantages and effective linkage with the commercial development and operation of the stations and stations.

利用新技术的投入带来新的服务是民营高铁在能力范围内可以带来的改变,在于占福看来,铁路还可以联动旅游等产业,或者在列车服务上提供新的服务,比如更好的餐饮,但要在与原有铁路系统更好适配的基础上。

Using new technology to bring new services is a change that can be made within the capacity of private high-speed rail. In mr. zhang's view, railways can also link industries such as tourism, or provide new services such as better catering for train services, but on the basis of better alignment with the old railway system.

在赵坚看来,民资被政策寄望进入铁路领域的原因之一就是希望带来效率的提高,在目前既有的体系内,可以改变的空间还不够大。

In mr zhao's view, one of the reasons why civilian capital is expected to enter the railway sector is to bring efficiency gains, and there is not enough room for change in the existing system.


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